7 Common Water-borne Diseases in India

Water-borne Diseases:

Water-borne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic microorganisms that are transmitted in water. Such disease can spread through dirty water and can cause many diseases like diarrhea, viral fever, etc. These diseases can also spread through bathing, drinking water, and washing by contaminated water.

There are various symptoms through which one can get to know about waterborne diseases. They must consult a doctor if they suffer from any waterborne diseases. Otherwise, they will harm your health and lower your immunity level.

For the safety of our health, we must keep our environment clean and practice good hygiene at all times. We all are only responsible for ourselves and our family members.

Symptoms and Treatment of waterborne disease:

There are various symptoms through which one can get to know about such diseases. Some of the common water-borne diseases are:

1. Typhoid:

The Salmonella typhi bacteria cause typhoid. Typhoid occurs in most places where people do not maintain personal hygiene. Typhoid can have various consequences and can even be fatal if one can not take the treatment.

 Symptoms of Typhoid:

  • High fever
  • Extreme weakness
  • Muscle pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Constipation
  • Cough
  • Diarrhea
  • Skin rashes with small red spots
  • Weight loss
  • Chills and abdominal pain

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Treatment of Typhoid:

  • Typhoid is usually diagnosed through a blood test or urine samples.
  • The doctor will give you antibiotics to battle against the infection.
  • Oral fluids or an IV to rehydrate.

2. Cholera:

Bacteria Vibrio cholerae causes cholera. Cholera can transmit through contaminated food and feces. Transmission of cholera is rare.

But, if you come into contact with someone who suffers from cholera then there is a tendency that you will suffer from it.

Symptoms of cholera:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Muscle cramps
  • Feeling thirsty
  • Abdominal pain

Treatment of cholera:

  • Rehydration – Drink lots of water, and ORS solution will compensate for fluids lost from the body. ORS is available at any medical store.
  • Antibiotics and Zinc supplements to counter infections and build resistance.
  • Intravenous Fluids – one may need IV drip.

3. Giardiasis:

Parasitic infection causes Giardia. It is a water-based pathogen.

Swimming pools, lakes, and public water bodies are the most common infection points.

 Symptoms of Giardiasis:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Abdominal pain and discomfort
  • Headache
  • Weight loss
  • Tiredness and fatigue

Treatment of Giardiasis:

Your doctor will prescribe anti-parasitic drugs to speed up the treatment process.

4. Hepatitis A:

Viruses that cause Hepatitis transmitted through contaminated water. It is a subtype of the hepatitis virus that occurs by exposure to contaminated food and water. It affects your liver function. Hepatitis A spreads when you consume uncooked vegetables, contaminated food, and water in unclean food joints like roadside vendors.

Symptoms of Hepatitis A:

  • Yellowish skin due to jaundice
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Body pain and weakness
  • Abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Darker urine
  • Weight loss

Treatment of Hepatitis A:

  • Drink lots of water
  •  Eat hot home-cooked meals
  •  Avoid alcohol and outside junk foods.

5. Shigellosis:

Shigella bacteria cause Shigellosis. It affects the intestine which results in diarrhea and vomiting. Shigella bacteria are present in contaminated water, food, and feces.

Shigellosis Symptoms:

  • Frequent diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Stomach pain

Treatment of Shigellosis:

  • Dehydration is the biggest issue associated with Shigellosis.
  • You have to take a lot of water.
  • Medications and antibiotics are some of the things preferred by your doctor.

6. Malaria:

Plasmodium parasites cause malaria. And it transmits through the female Anopheles mosquito that breeds on stagnant, unclean water such as lakes and sewage drains.

Symptoms of Malaria:

  • High fever
  • Continuous sweating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Headaches
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Muscle pain and weakness

Treatment of Malaria:

  • You can take drugs and medications that your doctor prescribes you to treat malaria.
  • To prevent malaria, always practice safe hygiene protocol, and stay clear of unhygienic water sources such as sewage drains and stagnant water.

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7. Amoebic Dysentery:

It is a water-borne disease that mainly spreads through contaminated food, water, and contact with fecal matter. It is an intestinal infection that leads to inflammation of the intestine.

Amoebic dysentery usually lasts for 3-7 days.

 Symptoms of Amoebic Dysentery:

  • Abdominal cramps/pain
  • Fever and chills
  • Painful passing of stools
  • Intermittent constipation
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Bloody stools
  • High fever
  • Excessive thirst due to Dehydration
  • Fatigue

Treatment of Amoebic Dysentery:

  • Amoebic dysentery is diagnosed through a stool sample under a microscope.

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